Abstract Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event. Using modern astronomical software, our article shows that a number of Thirteen day eclipse pairs were visible in Kurukshethra. Article suggests some candidate dates for Mahabharata war. Introduction Mahabharata is a great epic, and is one of the pillars of present day Hinduism. The Mahabharata story and its moral ethos have had profound influence on millions over many generations. Mahabharata war is said to have occurred before the transition of Dwapara Yuga to Kali Yuga.
It is perhaps the longest poem of its kind of such antiquity. The presently known oldest version of Mahabharatabased on its style, grammar and other features was probably written down before the Gupta period. This Mahabharata text does not refer to any Zodiac's or Raashis a western concept probably accommodated in to Jyotishya some time during BC to AD. The linguistic style of the oldest version of Mahabharata clearly cannot be the basis for determining if and when the events of Mahabharata occurred.
The known oldest version has nearly 90, topoems dominantly with 32 syllables Anushtup chandasin 18 chapters called Parva's [ref-4 and 5]. It describes a period of draught, with many planetary positions. Then there is this clear reference to pair of eclipses occurring on 13th day as shown below.
Fourteenth day, Fifteenth day and in past sixteenth day, but I have never known the Amavasya New Moon day to occur on the thirteenth day. Lunar eclipse followed by solar eclipse on thirteenth day is in a single lunar month etc This reference to Thirteen day eclipse pair appears to be a unique astronomical observation. Mahabharata Drona Parva also refers to Jayadhratha's killing during a dark episode on 13th day of the war, which some consider as another short solar eclipse.
Analysis of the time between successive eclipses, specifically time between end of one and beginning of other has been made, with a view to look at astronomical feasibility of back-to-back eclipses in 13 days, using modern astronomical computer software. Another major issue of how did observers of the period define and determine period between eclipses when no clocks existed, has been addressed.
Eclipses Lunar eclipse occurs when Earth's shadow falls on the Moon. There are about lunar eclipses per century. Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, and can be either total or partial.
Can dating of mahabharata are all
Further they can be umbral and or penumbral. Total lunar eclipses can last up to 2 hours, while partial lunar eclipses can last up to 4 hours. Any observer on dark face of earth can see when lunar eclipse when it occurs. During period BC to BC, nearly lunar eclipses have probably occurred. A good fraction of these would have been visible in Kurukshethra [ref-6]. Solar Eclipse occurs when Moon's shadow falls on earth observer.
About solar eclipses occur every century. Solar can occur only at new moon. Solar eclipses may be total or annular. Total solar eclipses can last up to about 8 minutes, and partial solar eclipses can last up to minutes. The shadow of moon has a limited size of few thousand miles falling on nearly mile diameter earth. Hence, solar eclipses can be seen only in a limited range of longitude-latitude where the shadow falls.
Elsewhere, even though sun is visible, eclipse will not be seen.
Jun 17, The epic riddle of dating Ramayana, Mahabharata The dating of the Ramayana and Mahabharata is a project that attracts intense debate as passionate pursuers apply new techniques to look for answers Sunaina Kumar | 17 Jun, "Would you like to see how the sky looked at the beginning of the war?" asks Ashok Bhatnagar, peering over his glasses. Jun 13, The fifth-century mathematician, Aryabhatta, calculated the date of the Mahabharat War to be approximately B.C. from the planetary positions recorded in the Mahabharat. Prof. C.V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte had derived the date to be B.C. and Shri. Kota Venkatachalam reckoned it . As per Dr S Balakrishna of NASA, the date of Mahabharata War could be one of BC, BC, BC, BC, BC and BC. This is based on all possible double eclipses with 13 days gap between BC to BC ascertained using Lodestar Pro software.
Eclipse evaluating computational software and its validation in present context Astronomical calculations have been greatly improved since past 30 years, particularly with considerable amount of trajectory work conducted in Moon and other scientific projects. High accuracy computer models and software have been developed. The Lodestar Pro was checked for historical eclipses of BC from clay tablet records of Mesopotamia area presently available with British Museum. Wayne Mitchell has analyzed this data [Ref-8].
Lodestar Pro provided excellent match with ref Eclipses at Kurukshethra During the period of our interest, BC to BC, nearly Lunar Eclipses and solar eclipses have occurred on earth.
Of these nearly solar and lunar eclipses occurred in pairs of time gap of about nominal 15 days corresponding to roughly half lunar month. We need to search amongst these for eclipse pairs visible in Kurukshethrawhich occurred in 'Thirteen' days. A very detailed scan of all the visible lunar and solar eclipses for every year from BC to BC was made on the Lodestar software for Kurukshethra location.
These are tabulated and plotted. Maximum eclipse time gap end of one eclipse and beginning of next eclipse for naked eye observers was found to be about hours while the minimum was about hours. A plot of time gap between back-to-back eclipses versus eclipse pair number is shown below.
This time corresponds to maximum to maximum - not end of one to beginning of next as in the future table. The plot shows that during the period BC to BC, Julian year corresponds to zero at BC- an imaginary date- Our range corresponds to Julian year to Julian Year nearly pairs of eclipses occurred on earth, which in principle may have been visible at Kurukshethra.
Amongst these, nearly 32 pairs would be occurring for period less than 14 days.
Sep 02, The dating of the Mahabharata War has often been challenging and controversial. Manjul said, "European scholars have maintained that the events described in ancient Sanskrit texts are imaginary. Subsequently, the Mahabharata has been derived to be a fictitious tale of war fought between two rivals - the Pandavasand the Kauravas. The location of the planets at the time of eclipse pair is shown in table above. Clearly, only Brihaspati, and Shukra are the only planets near locations indicated in the Mahabharata text. This date of BCJ is a serious candidate date for consideration of Mahabharata war. Analysis of the Eclipse tables. Planetary Positions and Dating of Mahabharat Events Saturn Position and Mahabharat Dating. Encyclopedia of Astronomy by Larousse states that one rotation of Saturn takes 26 years and days. One year means days. So the Saturn's round takes years. 5th May , Saturn (???) conjugated with Purva.
Many of these were found to be weak penumbral eclipses of moon, and solar eclipses had such low obscurity as to raise the issue whether any body could see them.
Six pairs of 'thirteen day' eclipses could be seen unambiguously. Definition of Day and issue of timing determination It is easy for us, in present time, to precisely analyze the eclipse times based on a 24 hour per day time clock.
However many thousand years ago, such a time evaluation would clearly be irrelevant.
Hence the count of the day and time had to be based on clear, natural and unambiguous events such as sunset to sunset or sunrise to sun rise. Hence in all the analyses, presented below, the time of relevant sun rise or sun set is indicated such that the eclipse beginning and end can be evaluated with reference to the sun rise or sun set. In modern day definition, the period from sunrise to next sunrise is never 24 hours except on equinox day. On all other days, the time will be either less than 24 hours when day light time is shrinking and more than 24 hours when day light time is increasing.
For people of ancient times, sunset-to-sunset or sunrise-to-sunrise would be the logical definition of a day. Using this definition, it is possible to determine whether an eclipse pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'.
There's dating of mahabharata pity, that
Kurukshethra eclipses and some planetary retrograde motions The table below shows six pairs of eclipses, which can be analyzed further to determine whether Mahabharata war and events could occur then.
There are others that have low obscurity for solar eclipse, or have dominant penumbral lunar eclipse content and hence do not constitute strong candidates for the Mahabharata war. Planets Sani Saturn and Brihaspati JupiterShukra Venus in retrograde motion are illustrated for period around the eclipse pairs.
Let us now look at how any observer can study these eclipses and conclude that the pair occurred in 'Thirteen days'.
On Julian August 11 afternoon, a solar eclipse begins 20 minuets before sunset and it is still on going at sunset. Fourteen days later On Julian August 25 in the evening at sunset a lunar eclipse is already occurring.
It clearly suggests that eclipse started on the 13th day after the previous eclipse! Obviously the end of lunar and start of solar eclipses were less than 14 days period, or occurred in 13 days. This could be concluded without the benefit of modern clocks. This is the site of Krittika. Thus it is proved beyond doubt that Vyas bas men- tioned the position of Pluto, which was discovered to the modern world in It is usually held that before the discovery of Herschel in AD, only five planets were known to the world.
This stanza states that the seven great planets were brilliant and shining; so Rahu and Ketu are out of question. Parus means a node. Evidently Rahu and Ketu are not included in these seven great planets. The Moon also is not included, because it was not visible on that day of Amavasya with Solar Eclipse. From the positions discovered by me and given by Vyas it is seen that Mars, Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune were the seven great planets accumulated in a small field extending from Anuradha to Purva Bhadrapada.
So they appeared to Ved-Vyas as colliding with each other, during total solar eclipse. This is the statement of sixteenth day of the War, naturally the Moon has moved away from the Sun. Even if we do not consider the planetary positions, from the above three stanzas, it is clear that seven planets are mentioned which do not include the Sun, Moon, Rahu and Ketu.
Naturally the conclusion is inevitable that Vyas did know Uranus Shveta and Neptune Shyama as planets. If they were known from years B. The answer is simple, that these two planets, Uranus and Neptune were not useful in predicting the future of a person. So they lost impor- tance and in the course of time they were totally forgotten. But, in any case, Neelakantha from 17th century knew these two planets very weIl. Neelakantha is about a hundered years ancient than Her- schel, and he writes that Mahapata Uranus is a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India.
Divisible by 22 explained further So both were known in India, at least one Hundred years before Herschel. Vyas is years ancient than Herschel, but still he knew all the three planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. A fortnight of only thirteen days is told by Vyasa which occured just before the great War. Such a fortnight comes at the interval of 22 years. Calculations show that at nd B. Kshaya Paksha did occur.
It had occured and Krishna and Karna fixed the day of War on Amavasya Udyog So the War must have commenced on 16th October. Let us see if Amavasya comes on this day. InAmavasya was on 21st of October. Amavasyas repeat after the intervals of The Lunar year is of This indicates that 6 Amavasyas are completed and 0. These 22 days are left for 21st October and we have to go behind upto 16th October.
So adding these 6 days to 22 we get 28 days. After 28 days Amavasya can occur. After 29 days it always occurs. Thus on 15th and 16th October nd year B. C, there were two successive amavasyas as mentioned by Vyas. Another method gives the same conclusion. At the interval of 19 years the Amavasya falls on the same date. So in 19 years Amavasya are completed. I found that on 17th Octoberthere was an Amavasya.
This division is complete, so there was an Amavasya. Thus it is established that Vyas has reported Amavasya correctly. Vyas has mentioned that there was Solar as well as Lunar eclipses in one month at the time of Mahabharat War. Calculations confirm that in October year B. C, both the Solar and Lunar eclipses did occur.
Rahu and Ketu were in Uttara Ashadha at deg. Thirteen days earlier the sun would have been 13 deg.
Rahu was at deg. There are many comets. Indian Astro- nomical works refer to more than comets, but big comets are very few. It was seen in and This also proves the theory posed by Indian intellectuals that west cosmologists relied on ancient Hindu texts and Sanatan Science to re-discover planets and comets. No surprises that NASA translated all Hindu texts in different languages for its diversified crew to get new discoveries done with the help of these texts. All the twelve planets confirm their said positions on 16th October years B.
Thus, in all 18 mathematical positions fix the same date.
Dating of mahabharata
Therefore, we have to accept this date of the Mahabharat War, if we want to be scientific. Please note that all the twelve planets will come in the same positions again only after crores of years. That means it will never happen again in the life of our earth, because life of the earth is only crores of years. So the date of the Mahabharat War is pin-pointed as 16th October B.
Hereunder is provided a short table dates of important Mahabharat events in years. Pandavs Going to forest 4th Sept. Kitmeet Killed 7th Sept. Going underground 19th May BC 4. Keechak killed 1st April BC 5. Anukeechak-Massacre 2nd April BC 6. End of secret life 9th April BC 7. Cows stolen 15th April BC 8.
Arjuna exposed 16th April BC 9. All pandavas exposed 19th April BC Krishna set out for a treaty.
Pity, dating of mahabharata Yes, really
Stay at Upaplavya 27th Sept. Stay at Vrukshthala 28th Sept. Dinner to Brahmins 29th Sept. Entry into Hastinapur 30th Sept. Krishna meets Kunti etc. Invited for meeting 2nd Oct. First meeting 3rd Oct. Second meeting and an attempt 4th Oct. Third meeting Vishvaroopa 7th Oct. Stay at Kunti 8th Oct. Krishna meets Karna 9th Oct to support Pandav Krishna returns 9th Oct.
Pandavas preparation 11th Oct. Mahabharat war started 16th Oct. Abhimanyu killed 28th Oct. End of War 2nd November B. Yudhishthira crowned 16th Nov. Bhishma expired 22nd Dec. Pandava campaign 15th Jan. Parikshit born 28th Jan. Pandavas return 25th Feb. Ashvamedh Deeksha. Return of Arjuna Horse 15th Jan. Ashvamedh yajna 22nd Feb. Dhrutarashtra went to forest 18th Aug.
Pandavas visited Kunti 18th Aug. Death of Kunti, Dhrutarashtra, Sept. Yadav Massacre B.
Your email address will not be published. Every 72 years, in Western Calendar the Equinox shifts a day. But it is important to note Sun also moves with that.
Hence for Indian calendar there is no shift in Seasons. For example you can notice the Season definition is never changed in Any Purana or Itihasa.
Kartika month is Sarath season defined in Mahabharat and Still it is true. The war ended on Shravan Nakstara. In Margasirsa month Shravan star comes in beginning. Hence war should have ended in Pausa month. That is 12th day of Month Kartika. He is back on Krishnapaksha 8th day on Pusa nakstra. That is 23rd day of Kartika.
Uttarayana always starts when Sun is in Moola star. Krishna says when Yudhistra meets Bhisma in arrow bed that Bhisma has 56 days left in his life. After all preaching is over Yudhistra spends 50 nights at Astinapur Palace. The no. There are 23 events examined like this to mark date of the War Please read following book for the same This is the perfect analysis.
Hindu calender is based on lunar cycle or it is a lunar calender. So yes the season shifts slowly. Hare KrishnaHistory. We know that Indian mythological sources might have preserved information about prehistoric peopling as well as past societal structure.
And we use this information and look into the human genome DNAwhich preserves information back several generations. The Ramayana project is ongoing, and the plan for the next phase is to collect DNA samples from communities that claim direct lineage from Rama and then look for a consensus result-if any-that traces his male descent via the Y chromosomal haplogroup.
Chaubey also speaks of how his growing up years in Varanasi gave him a firm grounding in mythological texts and sources, which he now applies to research.
Sorry, that dating of mahabharata was under
He is extending the same analysis to the Mahabharata. She turned to botany and zoology to establish the historicity of the Ramayana. Two life scientists from the institute, P Sudhakar and M Amirthalingam studied the plants and animals of the Ramayana. The idea for this research came to her while on a visit to Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh, where she saw a painting of a tiger and a lion together. Dismissing it as artistic licence, since the two are not found in the same forest, she later found out that in the forest of Dandakaranya, the two had co- existed, and Valmiki had weaved this into the Ramayana.
She felt she had to follow his trail. By next year, the results of their work on Krishna and the Mahabharata will be out. The Mahabharata, though, is not as yielding in botanical information as the Ramayana. Nanditha Krishna has also authored Sacred Plants of India and Sacred Animals of India published by Penguinbooks about research done on the Vedas and epics to authenticate their historicity. As I searched for correlations in ancient texts, I realised that while writers can make up stories about people, they cannot fake plants and animals, which are described so accurately in these texts.
That was a tremendous source to authenticate our literature. Neera Misra, who runs the Draupadi Trust in Delhi, is not a historian or scientist, unlike other pursuers.
She is a former entrepreneur who was drawn to the field quite by accident. Misra belongs to Kampilya, which, located in Farrukhabad district of Uttar Pradesh, is considered the birthplace of Draupadi and the capital of the kingdom of Panchala.
Some years ago, while recovering from an illness, she started watching reruns of Mahabharata on television and realised the importance of Kampilya.
She was witty and intelligent, fiercely independent and progressive. Her tiny office is filled with ancient maps of Panchala, some frayed with age. I have a connection with the land.
When did the Mahabharata War Happen? The Epoch of Arundhati
Misra has the air of someone who knows how to get things done. She campaigned extensively for excavation at Kampilya, which took place between and Misra talks about the tragedy of Kampilya. The mound where Drupad Kila Fort of King Drupad is assumed to be located has been taken over by squatters. Intent on reclaiming the historic site and developing it for cultural tourism, she is currently in talks with the government of Uttar Pradesh.