They were exceptionally masterful in applying special glazes that rendered their pieces as highly desired and prized the world over for their beauty and characteristic visual impact to this date and as amply witnessed by the prices they fetch at auction, some examples of which from our Antiques Pricing Guides are featured below. Intricate designs of overlay and magnificent detailing are immediately recognizable and have become the main distinguishing characteristics of Amphora Porcelain. Their work is interestingly unique and separates their items from others made by various concurrent companies in Austria or the surrounding countries. Some of these pieces are functional, but the vast majority is purely for display and admiration. The prevailing decor that was adopted by most modelers at Amphora Porcelain Works was the then newly evolved Art Nouveau style characterized by its flowing forms and elegant designs. These smaller porcelain studios competed fiercely to produce one splendid example of art ceramics work after another.
Type A amphorae are recognisable by their flat, flanged handlesoften decorated with ivy, and two-part 'stepped' foot. A third type, Type C, is less common.
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Like Type B it has a one-piece foot, but the lip is round 'torus' rather than straight. The volume of a Roman amphora was one cubic footc.
Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. During the production process the body was made first and then left to dry partially. Amphorae often were marked with a variety of stamps, sgraffitoand inscriptions.
They provided information on the production, content, and subsequent marketing.
A stamp usually was applied to the amphora at a partially dry stage. Painted stamps, tituli pictirecorded the weight of the container and the contents, and were applied after the amphora was filled.
The first systematic classification of Roman amphorae types was undertaken by the German scholar Heinrich Dressel.
Following the exceptional amphora deposit uncovered in Rome in Castro Pretorio at the end of the s, he collected almost inscriptions from amphorae and included them in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. In his studies of the amphora deposit he was the first to elaborate a classification of types, the so-called "Dressel table",  which still is used today for many types.
Subsequent studies on Roman amphorae have produced more detailed classifications, which usually are named after the scholar who studied them.
Ceramics of shapes and uses falling within the range of amphorae, with or without handles, are of prehistoric heritage across Eurasia, from the Caucasus to China. For example, the kvevricommon in the Republic of Georgia and the Caucasus, may be traced back to approximately BC.
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Amphorae first appeared on the Phoenician coast at approximately BC. In the Bronze and Iron Ages amphorae spread around the ancient Mediterranean world, being used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as the principal means for transporting and storing grapesolive oilwineoilolivesgrainfishand other commodities.
Wooden and skin containers seem to have supplanted amphorae thereafter. They influenced Chinese ceramics and other East Asian ceramic cultures, especially as a fancy shape for high-quality decorative ceramics, and continued to be produced there long after they had ceased to be used further west. Besides coarse amphorae used for storage and transport, the vast majority, high-quality painted amphorae were produced in Ancient Greece in significant numbers for a variety of social and ceremonial purposes.
Their design differs vastly from the more functional versions; they are typified by wide mouth and a ring base, with a glazed surface and decorated with figures or geometric shapes. They normally have a firm base on which they can stand. Surviving examples bear the inscription "I am one of the prizes from Athens", and usually depict the particular event they were awarded for.
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Painted amphorae were also used for funerary purposes, often in special types such as the loutrophoros. Especially in earlier periods, outsize vases were used as grave markers, while some amphorae were used as containers for the ashes of the dead.
By the Roman period vase-painting had largely died out, and utilitarian amphorae were normally the only type produced. On a neck amphora, the handles are attached to the neck, which is separated from the belly by an angular carination. There are two main types of neck amphorae:. There are also some rarer special types of neck amphora, distinguished by specific features, for example:.
In contrast to the neck amphora, a belly amphora does not have a distinguished neck; instead the belly reaches the mouth in a continuous curve. After the mid-5th century BC, this type was rarely produced.
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The pelike is a special type of belly amphora, with the belly placed lower, so that the widest point of the vessel is near its bottom. The pelike was introduced around the end of the 6th century BC. Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphorawith black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.
They contained the prize of oil from the sacred olive tree of the goddess Athena for the winners of the athletic contests held to honour the goddess, and were evidently kept thereafter, and perhaps used to store wine, before being buried with the prize-winner.
They depicted goddess Athena on one side as seen on the second image on this page and the athletic event on the other side, e. Panathenaic prize amphora for runners; circa BC; terracotta; height: It was very heavy, although also strong.
Around the middle of the 1st century BC the so-called Dressel starts to become widely used.
It has been calculated that while a ship could accommodate approximately Dressel 1, it was possible to fit Dressel in the same space.
At the same time in Cuma southern Italy the production of the cadii cumani type starts Dressel These containers were mainly used for the transportation of fruit and were used until the middle imperial times. At the same time, in central Italy, the so-called Spello amphorae, small containers, were produced for the transportation of wine.
Dec 10, Roman shipwreck dating back to the time of Jesus containing cargo of 6, well-preserved wine amphorae is found on the Greek sea floor The 'Fiskardo' shipwreck was located near a . The first is common from the Geometric period (c. bc) to the decline of Greek pottery; the second appeared in the 7th century bc. The height of amphorae varies from large Geometric vases of 5 feet ( metres) to examples of 12 inches (30 centimetres) or even smaller (the smallest are called amphoriskoi).
On the Adriatic coast the older types were replaced by the Lamboglia 2 type, a wine amphora commonly produced between the end of the 2nd and the 1st century BC. This type develops later into the Dressel 6A which becomes dominant during Augustan times.
Type B amphora The most typically occurring form is termed Type B, characterised by the combination of round handles, the mouth's straight lip, and the convex profile of the one-piece foot (termed 'echinus'). The shape is old, dating back to the seventh century, and . Amphora, Czechoslovakia pottery can be dated after U.S. Zone is a mark used on Bavarian and German pottery and porcelain during the American occupation of the area from to Austria declared itself a German state in and did not regain independent status again until AMPHORA (Austria) is the common name of a series of companies that formed in and finally nationalized in RIESSNER who seems to have been the primary founder, partnered with KESSEL and STELLMACHER during different phases in the evolution of this company. However, AMPHORA WORKS or AMPHORA PORCELAIN FACTORY are the most common terms used by collectors.
In the Gallic provinces the first examples of Roman amphorae were local imitations of pre-existent types such as Dressel 1, DresselPascual 1, and Haltern The more typical Gallic production begins within the ceramic ateliers in Marseille during late Augustan times. The type Oberaden 74 was produced to such an extent that it influenced the production of some Italic types.
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The Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis regions south-western and eastern Spain were the main production areas between the 2nd and the 1st century BC due to the distribution of land to military veterans and the founding of new colonies. Austria declared itself a German state in and did not regain independent status again until Pottery production during this time may be marked Germany, although it actually came from Austria.
Amphora Types According to Dressel. This table for dating amphoras is taken from Heinrich Dressel: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, band XV, Berlin The table mainly covers Roman types. It was made in a time when relatively few amphoras were known and could be dated. Today, many more have been found underwater. An amphora (/ ? ? m f ?r ? /; Ancient Greek: ????????, amphoreus; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storage rooms and packages, tied together with rope and delivered by land or sea. The size and shape have been determined from at least Created: Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Middle Ages. The right side of the shank is stamped as "GENUINE BRIAR" over COM stamp "AMPHORA - Holland". All the stampings are crisp and easily readable. The logo seen on this stem is letter 'A' embossed in a circle. Since this is the first Amphora pipe that I am working on, I was keen to know more about this brand and if possible, dating this pipe.
Refer to information online and in books to date Austrian pottery. Determine the actual dates the company named on the piece was in business, and further limit the date by the logo use. Logos changed in color, size, and style over the years, and this is best determined from pictures of the logos online and in books.
Linda Richard has been a legal writer and antiques appraiser for more than 25 years, and has been writing online for more than 12 years. Richard holds a bachelor's degree in English and business administration.
She has operated a small business for more than 20 years. She and her husband enjoy remodeling old houses and are currently working on a s home.