The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore-or hole-and the age of the pipe of which it had been part. This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore. Louis Binford later devised a mathematical formula to refine Harrington's method Deetz
In North America, Robert Tippett pipes are quite commonly found in contexts dating to the mid- to late 18th century, which is surprising, as the last working Robert Tippett II is known to have died in Price Price suggests that it is likely that his daughter and son-in-law would have continued to maintain the business, at least until the latter's death in Pricebut it is also possible that there was an as yet unknown Robert Tippett IV, who may have been working in the later 18th century, possibly in partnership with the pipemaker, Israel Carey I Price This may explain the slightly later style of the Robert Tippett pipes recovered from Wade Street, which date stylistically to between c.
Appendix 3: The Clay Tobacco Pipes. There follows a summary of pipe fragments, in date order, including details of makers, where known. List of makers. Philip Edwards (/3) Isaac Evans (c/3) James Jenkins (c. ) Israel Carey I (c) James Abbott John Macey I or II (c) Charles Hicks (c/2. Jan 25, Clay pipe bowls can be dated with some certainty according to their shape, size and decoration, and with even more accuracy if they feature a maker's-mark on the 'heel', the protrusion under the bowl. The top pipe bowl above dates from while the one below is a fairly typical decorated one from One of the most useful artefacts for dating excavated historical sites is the clay tobacco pipe.
One possible fragment of this type was recovered from Contexta stem fragment with a very large oval, pedestal heel and truncated bowl. Five bowls of this type were recovered, all relatively upright, straight-sided bowls, one unstratified example bearing the maker's initials, 'RT', either side of the spur heel.
Clay tobacco pipe dating
A further example from a large deposit of unsmoked pipe fragments to the rear of 26 Wade Street, Context bears the initials 'JW' to either side of the spur heel.
Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of 19th-century pipes were recovered from a single contexta discrete dump of apparently unsmoked pipe fragments, recovered from the corner of a possible cellar, more than likely belonging to the pipe manufacturers, J. Wilkey or the White family, known to have been operating at 26 Wade Street in the mid-late 19th century above.
The assemblage from Context includes bowls of Types 23, 26 and 27, dating to the late 18th to the mid-late 19th century, most of which are decorated see Figure 68and one of which bears the initials 'JW', the probable mark of James or Joseph White II, or possibly of John Wilkey above.
Both assemblages were dated to the midth century, and are thought to be the products of James or Joseph White.
1938 Film of Clay Pipe Making at Broseley Clay Tobacco Pipeworks - Broseley England
The assemblage also includes one example of a green-glazed mouth-piece, a 19th-century innovation, probably introduced for both decorative reasons and as a preventative measure against mouth cancer, also noted among pipes recovered from Monk Street above; Beckey; Price et al. Only one bowl of this type was recovered, a very thick-walled bowl fragment with fractured spur and raised fluting decoration, from Context see Jarrett, fig.
Four bowls of this type were recovered, including one unstratified upright bowl, with the initials 'SR' either side of a stubby spur heel. Richards was the son of Samuel Richards I, a Bristol pipemaker who had moved to Woolwich in the late 18th century Price He became one of the most prominent Bristol makers, exporting pipes to Ireland between and Price His St Thomas Street factory closed in Price The remaining bowls of this type, all from Contextinclude three with stylised foliage decoration on the seam and rosettes on the heel, and one moulded in the form of an acorn Jackson and Price, Eight bowls of this type were recovered, one unstratified and seven from Context above.
The bowls are decorated, either with a decorative ribbed flange, or with basket-work decoration, similar to those illustrated by Jackson and Price under 'various 19th century pipes made in Bristol which often turn up in excavations' Jackson and Price One unstratified bowl of this 'Irish' type was recovered during the excavation, a tall, upright bowl with long spur heel. A second bowl fragment, possibly of this type, was also recovered from Context Many of the pipe fragments were recovered from dump deposits or levelling layers, which may well have been imported onto the site either immediately prior to the early 18th-century first phase of development of the area or during later construction work.
The stratigraphically earliest of these dump layers, present over much of the site and recorded variously as Contextsan also yielded one of the earliest pipe bowls, a product of Philip Edwards I or II fl.
It should be noted that no further physical evidence for pipe manufacture, in terms of kiln furniture, muffles, saggars etc. With the exception of the above deposit, the pipe evidence would thus suggest that activity on the site, in terms of the importation of levelling deposits and the creation of many of the cut features, commenced during the period between an and was uniformly present over the site as a whole.
he dating of a pipe fragment relies on assessing a whole range of variables to do with its fabric, manufacturing techniques, bowl form, style, finish, marks and decoration.
The very small number of pipe bowls of preth century date were either unstratified, or were residual finds within later contexts. The assemblage seems to be fairly typical of clay tobacco pipe assemblages from central Bristol, in terms of both dating and makers identified.
Of the named makers whose pipes occur within the present assemblage, most are commonly known from sites within the central Bristol area above.
Previous archaeological investigations on Wade Street itself at no. The only pipemaker whose products were recovered during the present excavation and whose work is not represented in the archaeological record is William Spencer the possible maker of the 'WS' pipe from cellar fill, Context From documentary records, it appears that Spencer was only working in Bristol for a total of two years, between and aboveso his absence from the archaeological record is, perhaps, not surprising.
The discrete deposit of 19th-century fragments, possible waste material from the kilns of the White or Wilkey families, should be viewed in the light of other 19th-century dumped deposits in the vicinity Group 1 and Group 2; Beckeyabove. Internet Archaeology is an open access journal. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.
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In this section: Introduction Contemporary pipemaking in Bristol Pipemakers: Documentary records Pipemakers: Archaeological and cartographic evidence Discussion The pipe assemblage Assemblage in date order Midth century Late 17th-early 18th century 18th century 19th century Site phasing from the pipe evidence Comparanda Conclusion Clay Tobacco Pipe Catalogue.
Figure Tobacco pipe bowl fragment showing initials 'PE' on pedestal heel. The decorative elements are molded, not incised.
Final, clay tobacco pipe dating only reserve exact
Decorative molded pipe bowls like these became common after and were evolving into more elaborate forms after Following Oswal the morphology of this bowl fragment is suggestive of Type 13 Thin, short bowls, flared mouthflat spurs which after c.
Because the fragment is small, there is some ambiguity in the type.
Though less likely, the steepness of the rear wall suggests that it might also be of several other types that were in use between and If the former match is correct, then the presences of a seam makes it likely that the pipe fragment was manufactured between and During that period there were few sources for Samoans to obtain imported kaolin tobacco pipes.
The problem with most of them especially if water-worn.
I mean the coins dropped throughout the millennia back to even before there were pockets; the tokens, some just as old, which were used in place of money; the religious badges or emblems which pilgrims could buy; the many and various tools, including weapons, used on or around the Thames foreshore.
Except perhaps in one respect.
kaolin tobacco pipe is one of the most useful artifacts that might be encountered at historical archaeological sites, for their short use-life and easily recognizable stylistic evolution provide valuable dating cues (Noel Hume ; Oswald ). Clay pipes were first developed in the early 17th century. Jun 27, As a result of their work, clay pipes have become perhaps the most useful tool for dating and interpreting archaeological deposits dating from the late sixteenth century onwards. Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites.
As an illustration of this, the photo above is what I was lucky enough to notice on a recent visit to my local stretch of Deptford foreshore, and below is what it turned out to be. What she first spotted was this. What might you find?